Solana And The POH Architecture: A Technical Deep Dive

The Solana network has emerged as one of the leading L1 blockchains in the market and is attracting the attention of developers, investors, and businesses alike. Solana is a high-performance blockchain designed to provide scalability, security, and high throughput for decentralized applications (dApps) including GameFi projects, payment infrastructure platforms, and cloud storage.

In this article, we’ll dive into the Solana network and explore its key features, and how it works.

Brief History of Solana

The Solana Network was founded in 2017 by Anatoly Yakovenko with a vision to revolutionize the traditional approach to distributed systems. Yakovenko, being a computer science expert, identified the limitations of existing blockchain networks in terms of scalability and the time taken to reach a consensus on the order of transactions.

To tackle these challenges, he introduced a novel concept called Proof of History (PoH) in a whitepaper. This innovative approach provided a missing piece to the puzzle of scalability for crypto networks. Yakovenko believed that the Solana Network, built on the PoH technique, has the potential to scale beyond its capacity, making it an ideal platform for decentralized applications and decentralized finance (DeFi) solutions.

How Solana Works

Solana distinguishes itself from other blockchains with its innovative way of functioning. Unlike most blockchains, Solana processes cryptocurrency transactions as they happen, providing high performance for dApps on its platform.

While the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus method is secure, it can be slow, and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Consensus algorithms face challenges in establishing the sequence of blocks without a reliable time source. Additionally, blockchains such as Ethereum rely on centralized algorithms to establish a median timestamp, which negates the benefits of decentralization. Solana’s Proof-of-History (PoH) solution solves these issues by creating timestamps within the blockchain itself. POH allows Solana to organize crypto transactions recorded on Solana’s blockchain, allowing transactions to be processed in real-time offering immediate completion.

Consensus mechanism

Solana’s consensus mechanism is one of its most unique features, setting it apart from other blockchains. Solana uses a Tower Byzantine Fault Tolerant (tBFT) Proof of Stake consensus mechanism, with a Proof of History (POH) implementation.

Proof of History

Solana’s Proof of History (PoH), is an architecture for securing the network and streamlining transactions. With Proof of History, Solana can create a historical record that proves that an event has occurred at a specific moment in time. PoH is not a consensus mechanism, but rather a modification of PoS.

PoH uses cryptography to produce a hash sequence, which acts as an on-chain clock to verify the sequence of events and confirm the interval between two transactions. This results in the ability to process transactions as they occur, rather than waiting for global consensus, and without raising any security concerns. This allows for higher scalability, reduced transaction fees, and a more stable platform for dApps.

Another significant aspect of Proof of History is the verifiable delay function. Unlike other blockchains that rely on external algorithms to establish a “median” timestamp, Solana uses its blockchain to verify transactions. This eliminates the need for a centralized source, making the network more decentralized.

Solana’s consensus mechanism relies on groups of validators called ‘Solana Clusters.’ Solana clusters are groups of nodes that work together to validate transactions and secure the network. The use of clusters reduces the load on individual nodes, allowing the network to scale and process more transactions without sacrificing security.

Tower Byzantine Fault Tolerant (tBFT)

Proof of History could not be possible without the Tower BFT architecture. Anatoly created the Tower BFT architecture to complement POH and solve its security flaws. TBFT allows Solana to be resistant to attacks that exploit the variability in Proof of History ASIC speed. Additionally, Tower BFT miniaturizes data packets and transmits them using UDP, which has lower memory requirements compared to traditional consensus algorithms. This results in faster, more efficient, and more secure transactions.

Additionally, Solana removes the mempool, a holding area for transactions waiting to be processed. By removing the mempool, and replacing it with a “Gulfstream”, Solana reduces the amount of data that needs to be processed, leading to a more streamlined and efficient network.

Network Features


Solana processes crypto transactions in real time, unlike traditional blockchains, which add each block to the blockchain sequentially. This allows Solana to offer faster transaction speeds, reducing the waiting time for confirmation. The use of its proprietary Proof-of-History (PoH) consensus mechanism enables it to produce timestamps that confirm the intervals between transactions and ensures their sequential order without relying on a centralized source. This results in faster, more efficient, and more scalable transactions, making Solana a preferred platform for decentralized applications that require high speed and low latency. Solana is also written in Rust which allows for parallel processing.

Low cost

By organizing transactions as they occur, rather than waiting for blocks to be added to the chain, Solana can provide a lower-cost solution for users compared to other blockchains. This is because the system can handle more transactions per second, reducing the need for increased fees to compensate for processing times. The result is lower fees for users, making it an attractive option for those seeking to transact cost-effectively.

Major Concerns on the Solana Network

The Solana network, like any other decentralized platform, faces several concerns that could affect its functioning and stability. Two of the most important concerns are decentralization and downtime.

In terms of decentralization, Solana’s goal is to provide a platform that operates in a completely decentralized manner. This ensures that all participants have an equal opportunity to contribute to the network and that no single entity can take control. However, if the number of Solana validators on the network is too small, it could lead to centralization, where a small number of nodes hold a large amount of influence over the network. To prevent this, Solana needs to attract a large and diverse community of users to maintain its decentralization.

Downtime is another major concern on the Solana network. In a decentralized platform, downtime can occur due to various reasons such as network congestion, system failures, or cyber-attacks. If a large number of nodes go offline, the network may become unavailable, causing inconvenience to users and potentially leading to a loss of confidence in the platform. To minimize downtime, Solana needs to ensure that its infrastructure is robust and can handle unexpected events. Additionally, the platform must have a plan in place to respond quickly to any incidents that may cause downtime. The last outage was in October 2022, but Solana has implemented major network upgrades since then.

Solana Network Upgrades

The Solana network is constantly seeking ways to improve its performance and user experience. In line with this, several upgrades have been proposed —with some in production— each aimed at resolving specific issues and increasing the overall efficiency of the network.

  • QUIC – QUIC, or Quick UDP Internet Connections, is an upgrade to improve the speed of data transmission. By using the UDP protocol, QUIC reduces the latency and increases the speed of data transmission, leading to faster and more efficient network performance.
  • Fee markets – Fee markets aim to ensure that the network resources are utilized optimally and that the fees paid for network services are commensurate with the resources consumed. By implementing fee markets, Solana aims to strike a balance between the need for low transaction fees and the need to secure the network.
  • Stake-weighted QOS – Stake-weighted QoS is an upgrade aimed at ensuring that the network resources are allocated to users based on their stake in the network. This would prevent malicious actors from monopolizing network resources and ensure that all users can access the network services they need.
  • TXN size increase – The proposed TXN size increase is aimed at reducing the costs associated with transactions on the network. By increasing the size of transactions, Solana aims to reduce the number of transactions required to complete a specific task, thus reducing the overall costs of transactions on the network.
  • Compact Vote State – Compact Vote State is an upgrade aimed at reducing the size of the state data on the network. This will increase the speed of data transmission and reduce the storage requirements of nodes on the network, leading to a more efficient and scalable network.

You can view the current status of Solana’s network upgrades, here.


FireDancer is a consensus node implementation created by Jump Crypto aiming to match the speed capabilities of Solana’s validators and solve Solana’s decentralization. A consensus node is a technology that validators use to agree on the chain’s state —blocks and transactions.

Right now, Solana’s throughput isn’t limited by hardware, but by its software. With the implementation of FireDancer, Validators can choose from Solana Labs’ clients or Jump’s which will help to further decentralize the network.


Solana represents an exciting step forward in the development of decentralized technology and has the potential to play a significant role in the future of the crypto industry. However, Solana must continuously work on improving its network infrastructure to accommodate its growing community.

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